Euclid is a telescope satellite that will be launched by the European Space Agency in 2020. Its scope is to create the largest ever three-dimensional map of galaxies, both in position and in distance. Beside the position, Euclid will also deliver images of billions of galaxies, allowing a study of the minuscule deflections that light suffers when zipping through the gravitational fields that permeate the space.
What can we do with the huge dataset that Euclid will offer to the scientific community? This is the question we tried to answer in the paper Cosmology and Fundamental Physics with the Euclid Satellite, that we recently submitted to the archives and to Living Reviews in Relativity, superseding a previous version.
So, again, what can we do with the Euclid dataset? The short answer is, almost everything. The long answer is contained in our 300-pages-long, 70-authors paper. But just to give a glimpse into it, we can test whether gravity is Einsteinian also “out there” and not just in the solar system, we can measure whether galaxies are distributed differently from light, we can weigh the mass of neutrinos better than on Earth, we can probe the distribution of dark matter, we can measure the expansion rate of the Universe, we can understand how the initial fluctuations have been generated during inflation, we can detect deviations from homogeneity and isotropy, if any, and answer dozen other questions that have been circulating within the astrophysical community in the last decades. All of this with an unprecedented precision.
So, if you wish to prepare yourself for Euclid, read this paper. It’s going to be a long travel, but worth it.